Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic; effective against many gram-positive cocci (gonococci and meningococci), various bacteria (Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Salmonella, Shigella, Klebsiella, Serration, Yersbnii, Proteus), Rickettsia, Spirochetes and some large viruses. The drug is active against strains resistant to penicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides. Poorly active against acid-resistant bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, clostridia and protozoa.
It acts bacteriostatically. The mechanism of antibacterial action is associated with a violation of the synthesis of proteins of microorganisms.
Drug resistance to the drug develops relatively slowly, while, as a rule, cross-resistance to other chemotherapeutic agents does not occur.
Prevention and treatment of infectious diseases of the eye:
Pregnancy and lactation
During pregnancy, it is possible if the expected effect of therapy exceeds the potential risk to the fetus (adequate and strictly controlled studies on the use during pregnancy have not been carried out, the ability of chloramphenicol to penetrate the placenta should be considered).
The FDA category of action for the fetus is C.
When taken orally, it passes into breast milk of lactating women and can cause serious adverse reactions in breast-fed babies. When applied topically, systemic absorption is possible. In this regard, lactating women should stop either breastfeeding or the use of the drug.
Hypersensitivity, hematopoietic diseases, acute intermittent porphyria, severe renal and hepatic impairment, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, psoriasis, eczema, fungal skin diseases, neonatal period (up to 4 weeks) and early childhood.
Local allergic reactions.
To prevent an increase in the inhibitory effect on hematopoiesis, the combined use with sulfonamide drugs is not recommended.
How to take, course of administration and dosage
Locally, a 0.25% aqueous solution - 1-2 drops per conjunctival sac every 1-4 hours (conjunctival sac usually holds only 1 cap).
Symptoms: "gray syndrome" in premature and newborns when treated with high doses (the cause of development is the accumulation of chloramphenicol, due to the immaturity of liver enzymes, and its direct toxic effect on the myocardium) - bluish-gray skin color, low body temperature, irregular breathing, lack of reactions cardiovascular failure. Mortality - up to 40%.
Treatment: hemosorption, symptomatic therapy.
Due to its high toxicity, it is not recommended to use it unnecessarily for the treatment and prevention of commonplace infections, colds, flu, pharyngitis, and carcinogenesis.
Severe complications from the hematopoietic system, as a rule, are associated with the use of large doses (more than 4 g / day) for a long time. In the process of treatment, systematic monitoring of the peripheral blood picture is necessary.
In the fetus and newborns, the liver is not sufficiently developed to bind chloramphenicol, and the drug can accumulate in toxic concentrations and lead to the development of a “gray syndrome”, therefore, in the first months of life, the drug is prescribed only for health reasons.
It is prescribed with caution to patients who have previously received treatment with cytostatic drugs or radiation therapy.